Es waren weniger seine technischen Fähigkeiten, die Alexander Graham Bell am Februar das Patent für das Telefon einbrachten. Mitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm. So meldete 15 Jahre später Alexander Graham Bell () in den USA das erste Telefon zum Patent an. wurden in Berlin und Mülhausen im Elsass.
Die Erfindung des TelefonsMitte des Jahrhunderts wird das Telefon gleich vierfach erfunden. Am Ende aber kassiert Alexander Graham Bell den Ruhm. alexander graham bell telefon erfindung. So meldete 15 Jahre später Alexander Graham Bell () in den USA das erste Telefon zum Patent an. wurden in Berlin und Mülhausen im Elsass.
Alexander Graham Bell Telefon Další výzkumy VideoMarch 7, 1876: Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone Über Videospiele Für Senioren aus der Zeit vor wird berichtet, allerdings sind keine solchen erhalten. Aber ein durchschlagender Erfolg blieb ihm zu Lebzeiten verwehrt. Bell verklagte daraufhin Western Union wegen der Verletzung seiner Patentrechte. Alexander Graham Bell, ameriški znanstvenik, izumitelj, inženir in inovator, * 3. marec , Edinburgh, Škotska, Združeno kraljestvo, † 2. avgust , Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Škotska, Kanada.. Bell, najbolj znan po izumu telefona, je bil pogosto tudi imenovan oče ocalajaialai.com oče, ded in brat so se ukvarjali z govorom, njegova žena in mati sta bili ocalajaialai.comzba: Univerza v Edinburghu, Univerza v Torontu. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer weiter, bis es im Jahre als Telefon praktisch einsatzfähig war. So konnte er dann die erste transamerikanische Sprechverbindung zwischen San Franzisko und New York einweihen. Im Juli gründete Bell die „Bell Telephone Company". İskoçya asıllı ABD'li bilim adamı Alexander Graham Bell, 3 mart 'de doğdu. 7 mart 'da telefonun patentini aldı. İlk telefon şirketi olan Bell telefon şirketini 'de kurdu. Bell telefon şirketi bugün ABD'nin en büyük şirketlerinden biridir.
Nur dann kГnnen wir einem Online Alexander Graham Bell Telefon ein wirklich gutes Zeugnis. - InhaltsverzeichnisAls er wenigstens seine Pläne zurück haben will, behauptet Bell, dass er sie verloren habe. Alexander Graham Bell este cunoscut întâi de toate ca fiind inventatorul telefonului. Dar acesta a fost interesat în mai multe domenii ale tehnologiei. A realizat cercetări medicale şi a perfecţionat tehnicile de învăţare a vorbirii destinate persoanelor fără auz. De asemenea, a inventat grafofonul şi fotofonul. The story of Alexander Graham Bell and Canada’s greatest invention is told in one teen pop song. In our version of the story, Bell only sees the fun advantag. Alexander Graham Bell kemudian mencapai sukses secara komersial berkat telepon. Sakarang ini AT & T merupakan perusahaan bisnis yang terbesar di dunia. Bell dan istrinya yang di bulan Maret memegang 15 persen saham dari perusahaan itu tampaknya tak punya bayangan betapa akan fantastisnya keuntungan yang bakal diterima oleh perusahaan itu. Alexander Graham Bell, (born March 3, , Edinburgh, Scotland—died August 2, , Beinn Bhreagh, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada), Scottish-born American inventor, scientist, and teacher of the deaf whose foremost accomplishments were the invention of the telephone () and the refinement of the phonograph (). The telegraf dan telefon kedua-dua sistem elektrik berasaskan dawai, dan kejayaan Alexander Graham Bell dengan telefon datang sebagai hasil langsung daripada usahanya untuk meningkatkan telegraf. Apabila dia mula bereksperimen dengan isyarat elektrik, telegraf telah menjadi cara ditubuhkan komunikasi untuk kira-kira 30 tahun. Since he had agreed to Mahjong Spiele Kostenlos U. Scots and Scots Descendant in America. InBell was elected as the second president of the National Geographic Societyserving untiland 15$ In Euro primarily responsible for the extensive use of illustrations, including photography, in the magazine.
Bell je umrl 2. Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije. Alexander Graham Bell Rojstvo 3. Prejemniki Hughesove medalje.
His interest in sound technology was deep-rooted and personal, as both his wife and mother were deaf. Ultimately, the talented scientist held more than 18 patents for his inventions and work in communications.
Young Alexander was an intellectually curious child who studied piano and began inventing things at an early age. Both of his brothers passed away from tuberculosis by the time Bell was in his early twenties.
When he was just 12, the young Alexander invented a device with rotating paddles and nail brushes that could quickly remove husks from wheat grain to help improve a farming process.
At age 16, Bell began studying the mechanics of speech. In , Bell, along with his family, moved to Canada. The following year, he settled in the United States.
While in the U. In , he opened the School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech in Boston, where deaf people were taught to speak. While teaching, Bell met Mabel Hubbard, a deaf student.
The couple married on July 11, They went on to have four children, including two sons who died as infants. In , Bell started working on the harmonic telegraph — a device that allowed multiple messages to be transmitted over a wire at the same time.
While trying to perfect this technology, which was backed by a group of investors, Bell became preoccupied with finding a way to transmit human voice over wires.
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Fonografer och grammofoner. Er wurde am 3. März in Edinburgh Schottland in einer Gelehrtenfamilie geboren. Er stellte seinen Sohn als Assistenten ein.
Vater und Sohn untersuchten hier die Probleme der Sprache und beschäftigten sich mit tauben Kindern. Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh , Scotland, on March 3, He had two brothers: Melville James Bell — and Edward Charles Bell — , both of whom would die of tuberculosis.
As a child, young Bell displayed a curiosity about his world; he gathered botanical specimens and ran experiments at an early age.
His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill. At the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation at the mill and used steadily for a number of years.
From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry, and music that was encouraged by his mother.
With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist. His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin , and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist ,  which appeared in Edinburgh in The Standard Elocutionist appeared in British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone.
In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes as they were then known to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning.
Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. He could decipher Visible Speech representing virtually every language, including Latin , Scottish Gaelic , and even Sanskrit , accurately reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation.
As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School , Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms.
His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his father.
During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study.
The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.
In , not long before he departed for Canada with his family, Bell completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to University College London.
His father encouraged Bell's interest in speech and, in , took his sons to see a unique automaton developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.
Bell was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.
Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.
His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words. Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier , "Trouve".
With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you, grandma? At age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis , a colleague of his father who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion.
Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", Bell pored over the German scientist's book.
Working from his own erroneous mistranslation of a French edition,  Bell fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech.
It was a valuable blunder If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments! In , when the Bell family moved to London,  Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.
Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.
His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.
Bell" and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath , England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover.
Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.
While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May , Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.
Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,  [N 7] conclude all of his brother's affairs Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp ,  and join his father and mother in setting out for the " New World ".
Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.
In , year-old Bell travelled with his parents and his brother's widow, Caroline Margaret Ottaway,  to Paris, Ontario ,  to stay with Thomas Henderson, a Baptist minister and family friend.
The property consisted of an orchard, large farmhouse, stable, pigsty, hen-house, and a carriage house , which bordered the Grand River. At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house near to what he called his "dreaming place",  a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound. Bell's father was invited by Sarah Fuller , principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf ,  in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post in favour of his son.
Travelling to Boston in April , Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors. Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".
Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.
Teaching his father's system, in October , Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils, with his first class numbering 30 students.
She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges". Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that should be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort, they could teach the deaf to read lips and speak known as oralism  and not use sign language , thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.
During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home. At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.
He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
Keeping "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover. Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and year-old Mabel Hubbard.
Each pupil would play an important role in the next developments. George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay in nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment".
Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr.
Sanders was backing the proposal. The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together, with free room and board thrown in.
Having lost her hearing after a near-fatal bout of scarlet fever close to her fifth birthday,   [N 12] she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard , Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
By , Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage, with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" a rented facility and at his family home in Canada a big success.
Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves. But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
In , telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton , had become "the nervous system of commerce".
Antonio Meucci sent a telephone model and technical details to the Western Union telegraph company but failed to win a meeting with executives.
When he asked for his materials to be returned, in , he was told they had been lost. Two years later Bell, who shared a laboratory with Meucci, filed a patent for a telephone, became a celebrity and made a lucrative deal with Western Union.
Meucci sued and was nearing victory—the supreme court agreed to hear the case and fraud charges were initiated against Bell—when the Florentine died in The legal action died with him.
In March , Bell and Pollok visited the scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!
However, a chance meeting in between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.
With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell hired Thomas Watson as his assistant, [N 14] and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.
On June 2, , Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.
That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds. This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone , which could transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.
In , Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it. Since he had agreed to share U. Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.
On February 14, , Gray filed a caveat with the U. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.
That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office. There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.
Bell was in Boston on February 14 and did not arrive in Washington until February Bell's patent ,, was issued to Bell on March 7, , by the U.
Patent Office. Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically On March 10, , three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.
Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit. When Bell spoke the sentence "Mr.
Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,  Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.
Although Bell was, and still is, accused of stealing the telephone from Gray,  Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent had been granted, and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment,  to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" Bell's words could be electrically transmitted.
The question of priority for the variable resistance feature of the telephone was raised by the examiner before he approved Bell's patent application.
He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat. Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water.
He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey.